2006, vol XIV, # 1
2006, vol 14, # 1, page 7
R. Y. Abdullaev, O. O. Mogila, S. O. Ponamorenko, V. V. Gapchenko
Ultrasonography of the knee joint: methodology and normal anatomy
Objective: To systematize ultrasonography technique and to study ultrasonographic anatomy of the knee joints.
Material and Methods: The study involved 43 healthy subjects (25 men and 18 women aged 18-54). Transverse and lateral arthrosonography was performed using a liner 5.5 - 12 MHz probe in the supine position with bent knees and in prone position.
Results: Optimal approaches which allow visualization of the structures were found: anterior, anteromedial, anterolateral, posterior, posteromedial, posterolateral. Functional ultrasonography was used to study the ligamentomuscular apparatus. Normal ultrasonographic picture was seen in the subjects aged 18-40: the outlines of the patella, hyalin cartilage, the tendon of the rectal muscle of the thigh were more distinct and regular, the structure of the ligaments is evenly hypoechoic, the articular cleft was symmetrical on the both sides, fluid was not revealed in the cavities. The meniscuses were evenly hyperechoic, triangular. The changes in the hyaline cartilage (uneven outlines and hyperechoic inclusions), slight asymmetry in the ligament thickness and articular clefts were reveled in the subjects aged 40-54. The structure of the meniscuses was even in all cases. The changes were considered agerelated.
Conclusion: Ultrasonography can be successfully used for investigation of anatomy and function of the knee joint as an objective method of diagnosis.
Key words: knee joint, ultrasonography, methodology.
2006, vol 14, # 1, page 12
G. G. Golka
The role and significance of radiation methods of investigation in diagnosis of tuberculosis spondylitis
Objective: To establish the role of modern radiation techniques in diagnosis of tuberculosis spondylitis (TS).
Material and Methods: The findings of the study with modern radiation techniques (CT and MRI) of 94 patients with TS treated at Kharkiv Regional Tuberculosis Hospital No. 1 were studied.
Results: The analysis of MRI findings (52 patients) revealed epidural abscesses in 36 patients. CT of 42 patients demonstrated focal destruction in 30 patients (71.4%), total destructive changes in 10 (23.8%), carious destruction in 2 patients (4.7%).
Conclusion: Modern radiation techniques considerably improve the diagnosis. CT and MRI findings should be interpreted together with x-ray ones.
Key words: diagnosis of tuberculosis spondylitis, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging.
2006, vol 14, # 1, page 19
V. G. Stovba, I. E. Solovjov, A. Y. Kuznecov
Algorithms of radiation diagnosis of the level and cause of colon obstruction in obturation ileus
Objective: Improvement of the efficacy of complex radiation preoperative diagnosis in patients with acute colon obturation ileus.
Materials and Methods: The study involved 120 urgent patients with acute colon obstruction treated in 1999-2004. The findings were processed with the use of sensitivity and specificity parameters.
Results: Application of the suggested algorithm of study of a large intestine in 73 (87 %) patients of 120 established the level of obturation, 26 (35.6 %) cases - at the sigmoid level; 29 (39.7 %) - rectosigmoid bend; 9 (12.3 %) descending colon; 3 (4.1 %) splenic angle; 4 (5.5 %) - transverce colon; 2 (2.7 %) - hepatic angle. In 68 (56.6 %) patients, “a sing of involved hollow organ” was revealed, which was the ultrasound picture of cancer the large intestine. In other cases the obstruction was: of strangulation nature - 12 (10 %) cases); the consequence of sigma volvulus - 8 (6.6 %); consequence of diverticulitis exacerbation - 9 (7.5 %); was of a dynamic character - 18 (15 %).
Conclusion: The suggested updating of ileus classification and introduction in the algorithm of the examination of a technique of transabdominal study of the large intestine allows to optimize diagnostic process and to reduce general time of preoperative diagnosis depending on clinical signs.
Key words: ultrasonic study, colon obturation ileus, diagnosis.
2006, vol 14, # 1, page 25
T. P. Jakimoava, І. М. Ponamorev
Radiation pathomorphism of breast cancer at various rhythms of radiation therapy
Objective: To perform clinical morphological substantiation of various techniques for breast cancer (BC) treatment and rhythms of radiation therapy (RT).
Material and Methods: Five-year survival and histological specimens of removed BC and regional lymph nodes from 430 patients were studied. The degree of radiation lesion of the tumor was considered based on the volume of the residual tumor tissue, the state of dystrophic changes in the cells and proliferative activity of the tumor according to the study of the tumor mitotic activity.
Results: At local irradiation of BC, degeneration of the tumor cells was moderate though more pronounced than at the traditional irradiation with small reactions (1.66±0.33 conventional units). The degree of radiation lesion of the tumor was 59.0±0.33 conventional units; mitotic index was the lowest (5.7±1.04%). Pathological mitoses were the most pronounced (83.0±5.19%) which suggested radiation lesion of the cells at a genetic level and inhibition of proliferative capabilities of the tumors. The use of local irradiation at organ-preserving surgery reduced breast edema, the degree of radiation reaction of the skin (erythema, hyperpigmentation, epidermitis of various degree) when compared with the traditional method of RT with small fractions and the other administered techniques.
Conclusion: Local irradiation of the tumor and the whole breast before and after the operation at organ preserving surgery appears to be a more effective technique.
Key words: breast cancer, radiation therapy, rhythms, modification.
2006, vol 14, # 1, page 29
М. М. Коrenev, S. О. Levencev, G. О. Borisko, А. І. Теreshenko, S. H. Cherevatova, V. А. Bondarenko
Peculiarities of sexual development hormonal regulation in daughters of participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up
Objective: To study the peculiarities of sexual development hormonal regulation in daughters of participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up.
Materials and Methods: The process of sexual maturation was monitored in 266 daughters of participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up aged 9-15 years and in 266 girls of the same age, whose parents had no contacts with a radiation factor.
Results: It was determined that the course of adolescence in girls from the families of participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up was different from that in their coevals whose parents had no contacts with radiation factor and was provided by peculiarities in hormonal regulation of the process. Hypo-cortisolemia in the pubertal period is probably one of the elements of the pathogenetic mechanism, which is responsible for the earlier onset of sexual maturation (in 38.2%). At the initial stages of puberty, higher levels of testosterone and cortisol in the blood serum were manifested in clinically noticeable faster development of the androgen-dependent secondary sexual characteristics (SSC) and higher incidence of the inverted puberty (14.0%). Later on a retarded formation of the estrogen-dependent SSC both with prolonged course of the period of menstrual function formation (in 47.3 %) and the proper puberty was connected with a reduction in concentration of sexual steroids in the blood serum. Systemic analysis of the data obtained allows to classify the daughters of participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up as a risk group for the pathological sexual development and testifies to the key role of androgens in the pathogenetic systemogenesis.
Conclusion: The peculiarities in the hormonal regulation in puberty in the daughters of participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up provide definite disorders of their sexual development, which requires a dynamic observation of this group.
Key words: daughters of irradiated fathers, puberty, sexual steroids, cortisol.
2006, vol 14, # 1, page 34
О. М. Коvalenko, V. А. Tuguchov, О. А. Stepanenko
Long-term changes in the hormonal regulation of the bone tissue formation and resorption in participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up with high radiation exposure doses. Communication 2
Objective: To analyze the changes in the concentration of the hormones which directly or indirectly influence the metabolic processes in the bone tissue, to determine bone mineral density in the participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation at long terms (2002-2005) after the accident.
Material and Methods: The study involved the participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up who at the moment of the study aged 35-74 (mean 52.0±0.5) with absorbed doses ranging from 0.5 to 7.1 Gy. The participants were divided into two groups: 1) those survived acute radiation sickness with absorbed dose of 1.0-7.1 Gy (69 persons); 2) persons with absorbed dose ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 Gy (256 persons). Basal blood plasma parathyrin, calcitonin, cortisol, insulin, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium concentrations were studied. All patients were determined mineral density of the calcaneal bone using ultrasound densitometer Achilles+ (Lunar Corp., USA ).
Results: A considerable reduction of blood plasma parathyrin and increase in calcitonin level were noted against a background of moderately increased cortisol concentration. The concentration of the studied macroelements (calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium) was within the normal levels in all subjects. Every third subject had decreased bone mineral density (osteopenic syndrome), its pronounced form, osteoporosis, was registered in 6% of cases.
Conclusion: Systemic hormonal shifts which can influence the processes of forming and resorption of the bone tissue both in the direction of osteopenic syndrome and normal bone mineral density are present in the participants of Chormnobyl accident clean-up with high exposure doses at long terms of the accident. Increased aging of the bone tissue in the participants of the clean-up vs the male population of Ukraine was revealed. The state of bone mineral density does not depend of the absorbed dose, age, and the concentration of the studied hormones.
Key words: participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up, hormonal regulation, bone mineral density, osteopenia.
2006, vol 14, # 1, page 38
V. V. Кucenok, І. V. Prokopenko, О. Y. Artemenko, М. F. Gamalia
Fluorescent analysis of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX accumulation in the tumor and normal tissue in mice
Objective: Using fluorometry, to study 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX accumulation (PP IX) in the organs and tissues of the mice with the tumor at oral administration of 5-aminolevulinic (5-ALA) acid.
Material and Methods: The study involved the organs and tissues taken from C57B1/6 mice with transplanted metastatic tumor - Lewis' carcinoma. The degree of PP IX accumulation after oral 5-ALA administration at a dose of 500 mg/kg of body weight was determined using СДЛ -2 fluorometer (LOMO, Russia ).
Results: The dynamics of PP IX accumulation in different tissues was various. The highest level of PP IX fluorescence in the blood and the liver was observed 2 hours after the administration, in the kidneys - 4 hours, in the skin - 6 hours. Maximum PP IX fluorescence intensity in the tumor was observed in 4 hours and optimum fluorescent contact between the tumor and the adjacent tissue was observed in 2 hours after 5-ALA administration.
Conclusion: Peroral 5-ALA administration resulted in PP IX accumulation in the organs and tissues in the diagnostically significant amounts within 2-6 hours after the drug administration with complete elimination observed 24-36 hours after the administration. Optimum difference of fluorescence between the tumor and the adjacent tissue was observed 2 hours after the substance administration.
Key words: photodynamic therapy, fluorescent diagnosis, fluorometry, photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX, 5-aminolevulinic acid.
2006, vol 14, # 1, page 42
М. О. Кlimenko, V. V. Zolotuhin
The influence of low-dose gamma-radiation on the bone marrow at chronic inflammation
Objective: To study the influence of low-dose gamma-radiation on the bone marrow at chronic inflammation.
Material and Methods: The study involved 96 male Wister rats. Chronic inflammation was induced by injection of 4 ml 2% carrageenan to the preliminary prepared subcutaneous air sac. The animals were irradiated on day 3 and 7 of the inflammation at a dose of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 Gy (dose rate 20 mGy/h). Total cell amount (TCA) and cellular composition of the bone marrow were investigated.
Results: Significant increase in TCA in the bone marrow was noted on day 3 at a dose of 0.1 and 1 Gy in the animals killed immediately after the exposure. Increased granulocyte proliferation took place on day 3 at a dose of 0.1 Gy and killing immediately after the exposure. A dose of 0.5 Gy inhibited proliferation and produced a similar delayed effect. Granulocyte maturation increased by day 3 at a dose of 1 Gy and killing immediately after the exposure. In these conditions a dose of 0.5 Gy provides a similar delayed effect. On exposure on day 7 of the inflammation doses of 0.1 and 0.5 Gy immediately stimulated granulocyte maturation. Monocyte proliferation increased on irradiation on day 3 at a dose of 0.1 and 1 Gy and killing immediately after the exposure. A dose of 0.5 Gy produced a delayed inhibiting effect (on day 7). At exposure on day 7 of the inflammation a delayed stimulating effect (day 14) was produced by a dose of 0.1 Gy. Lymphocyte amount in the bone marrow increased at exposure at a dose of 1 Gy by day 3 of the inflammation and killing immediately after the exposure. At exposure to 1 Gy by day 7 of the inflammation a delayed (by day 14) inhibiting effect was observed.
Conclusion: Low-dose gamma-radiation at a dose of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 Gy influences considerably the bone marrow in chronic inflammation. A greater effect is observed at exposure at earlier terms of inflammation (day 3) than in a later period (day 7). Dose dependence of the radiation influences the bone marrow cells. Immediate and delayed effects are noted. Efficacy of a low dose (0.1 Gy), which can increase granulocyte, monocyte proliferation and granulocyte maturation, is shown.
Key words: chronic inflammation, low-dose gamma-radiation, bone marrow.
We are proud to announce the annual scientific conference of young scientists with the international participation, dedicated to the Day of Science in Ukraine. The conference will be held on 20th of May, 2016 and hosted by L.T. Malaya National Therapy Institute, NAMS of Ukraine together with Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology, NAMS of Ukraine. The leading topic of conference is prophylaxis of the non-infectious disease in different branched of medicine.
Since 1993 the Institute became the founder and publisher of "Ukrainian Journal of Radiology”: