Home » Ukrainian Journal of Radiology » 2010, vol XVIII, # 1

2010, vol XVIII, # 1



2010, vol 18, # 1, page 48

R. Ya. Abdullaev, L.A. Sysun

Doppler ultrasound of brain vessels: methodological aspects
and normal anatomy


Objective: To systematize the methods of transcranial Doppler ultrasound investigation in triplex mode.

Material and Methods: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound investigation in the mode of color (CDM) and energetic Doppler mapping was performed in 50 patients aged 19-60 (of them 26 men and 24 women) patients with unchanged brain vessels. The study involved the patients without somatic diseases, which can induce cerebral disorders (stenosis and aortic valve insufficiency, hypertension, atrial fibrillation). The study was performed according to the definite protocol without patient preparation in triplex mode.

Results: Optimal approaches to investigation of brain vessels (transtemporal, transorbital and suboccipital) were determined. Our observations suggested that the main limitation at investigations of brain structures and intracranial vessels was presence of ultrasound windows, mainly temporal one. In three cases the temporal window was absent on one side: in 2 women aged 59 and 60 and 1 med aged 57. In 1 case the temporal window was absent on the both sides (a man aged 60). Quantitative velocity and angle- independent indices were assessed by anterior, posterior, basilar and communicating arteries as well as capabilities of communicating arteries were assessed using compression tests. Gelen's vein was visualized in 76% of cases, Rosenthal's vein in 52% of cases, frontal sinus in 62% of cases, transverse one in 43% . CDM mode improved considerably the quality of visualization. All normal cerebral arteries had two-phase spectral configuration. Gender-dependent differences between velocity parameters were not detected. Some increase in liner blood flow velocity (LBFV) was observed in women aged 40-59 (mean 3-5%), which is possibly associated with hormonal factors. In persons from the older age group some reduction of LBFV (up to 5-10%) and index of peripheral resistance (due to consolidation of the blood vessel walls) was observed.

Conclusion: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound investigation in triplex mode can successfully be used in investigation of anatomical and functional peculiarities of cerebral vessels.

Key words: transcranial Doppler investigation, color and energetic Doppler mapping, triplex mode, methodological aspects.


2010, vol 18, # 1, page 54

R. Ya. Abdullaev, Miriam Tahara

Ultrasonography of upper cervical spine in children: methodological
aspects and normal anatomy


Objective: To systematize the findings of ultrasound investigations and study echographic anatomy of the upper cervical spine in newborns and children.

Material and Methods: Ultrasonography was performed in 35 healthy children using 3.5-9,0 MHz linear and microconvex probes. The investigation was performed without a preliminary preparation from the anterolateral and posterolateral approaches in longitudinal and transverse planes. C2 tooth, lateral C1 masses and Cruveilhier joint were visualized from the posterior approach. Ultrasonography allowed to visualize C1 and C4 simultaneously, to investigate the shape and structure of the vertebra body, inter- vertebral disks, dentoid process, C1 lateral masses, Cruveilhier joint, and spinal cord as well as the character of the blood flow and vertebral artery.

Results: Quantitative parameters of atlantooccipital joint and spinal canal were determined. The vertebra body in newborns had double convex moderately increased echogenicity. The height of the bodies of intervertebral disks was almost similar. At the age of 1 year, the shape of the vertebra body is close to a rectangular one with rounded angles. The height and sagittal size of vertebra body and intervertebral disks could be determined in the longitudinal section from the anterior approach. Doppler investigation of vertebral arteries was performed from the both sides. Dentoid process and growth zone were determined from the posterior approach. Transverse size of the intervertebral disk, spinal canal and spinal cord was determined from the transverse section. This approach was used to assess the distance from the tooth to lateral C1 masses. Cruveilhier joint was visualized when the probe was placed in the posterolateral area of the neck at the level of the dentoid process at the angle of 80-90 degrees.

Conclusion: Ultrasound investigation is a successful and safe method of qualitative visualization of the structures of the upper cervical spine in children

Key words: upper cervical spine, intervertebral disk, dentoid process, Cruveilhier joint, ultrasonography.


2010, vol 18, # 1, page 59

L.I. Simonova, A.M. Korobov, B. Z. Hertman, L.V. Bilohurova, S.M. Pushkar, G.V. Kulinich, T.G. Zolotaryova

Influence of optic radiation with wave length 630-660 nm (red light)
on development of local skin radiation reactions in patients
with breast cancer during radiation therapy


Objective: To assess the efficacy of phototherapy with the purpose to prevent the development of local radiation lesion of the skin in patients with breast cancer (BC ) during post-operative radiation therapy when using an optical unit with a light source, i.e. super- bright photodiodes with wave length 630-660 nm (red light).

Material and Methods: The study involved 16patients aged 3565 with the diagnosis of stage IIB-IIIA BC who were administered standard course of post-operative radiation therapy (RT). The patients were divided into 2 groups: controls - 9 patients who were administered RT and main group - 7patients who were administered RT simultaneously with red light phototherapy (630-660 nm ). Red light was delivered to supra-, subclavicular andparasternal zones and the zone of the post-operative scar. Projections of the cubital veins, thymus, spleen and liver were also irradiated. Photomatrix unit Barva-Flex was used as an optic generator. Radiation skin reactions were assessed using the classification of National Cancer Institute (USA) distinguishing 4 grades of severity. Reaction intensity for each grade was assessed in 10points.

Results: It was determined that in the controls all patients developed radiation reactions (bright erythema, edema, itching, wet desquamation), their severity varying from grade II to grade III by ¦NCI scale. In the majority of patients (7 cases, 77.7%) skin reactions Corresponded to grade II (16-20 points), in one patient grade III was registered (22 points). Only in one patient skin reactions corresponded to grade I reaction. In the main group the intensity of skin radiation reactions in all patients did not exceed grade I by NCI scale during the whole period of RT (5-10 points ). At the end of the course of treatment on day 30 intensity of skin reactions reduced twice and more when compared with similar parameters in the controls. No side effects of phototherapy were registered.

Conclusion: Radiation induced skin reactions in patients with BC during the course of standard post-operative radiation therapy can reach grade II-III by NCI scale (20-22 points). The use of phototherapy with red light optic radiation (630-660 nm) allows Oo-reduce considerably the degree of severity of radiation induced skin reactions, the intensity of which did not exceed grade I with minimal manifestations by day 30 (pale erythema). The use of 'phototherapy in the visible spectrum during radiation therapy with the purpose of prevention or minimizing skin radiation reactions in the zone of irradiation demonstrated a high potential of the method.

Key words: phototherapy, light diodes, optic spectrum, breast cancer, radiation therapy, local radiation lesions.


2010, vol 18, # 1, page 65

E. B. Radzishevska, L.Ya. Vasiliev, Ya. B. Vikman, O.O. Solodovnikova

The results of retrospective statistical analysis of the patients with
cervical cancer


Objective: To perform retrospective analysis of some aspects of the course and consequences of treatment of the patients with cervical cancer (CC) vs. the results of similar investigation in patients with breast cancer (BC), uterine body cancer (UBC) and ovarian cancer (OC).

Material and Methods: The patients with stage M0 CC who were treated at Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology (Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine) in 1980-2003. The analysis of the accumulated information was done using nonparametric statistics and survival analysis and technology for hidden knowledge search Data Mining.

Results: It was shown that for the women who were administered specialized treatment for tumors of the breast and female reproductive system, follow-up period should last up to 12 years after the treatment completion with obligatory complete examination at the critical points (year 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12). It was demonstrated that the use of chemotherapy in addition to radiation therapy reduced three times the probability of long-term metastases as well as their appearance at late stages. Reduction of the number of relapses was primarily influenced by radiation therapy. Statistically significantly, long-term metastases did not appear in women after the age of 67 under the condition of absence of primary metastases to regional lymph nodes. The result did not depend of the process stage. Total fertility of patients with CC considerably exceeded similar parameters in women with tumors of the uterine body, ovaries, breast and population level.

Conclusion: The use of up-to-date computer methods of mathematical processing allows to obtain additional information from the data about the course of the disease, which can be found in case histories. Based on the data about the course of CC, the problem of risk factors of long-term metastases was analyzed; temporal peaks of the risk of their occurrence were assessed; the efficacy of the treatment protocols was compared; some general characteristics of these patients were revealed.

Key words: cervical cancer, risk factors, long-term metastases, methods of mathematical processing.


2010, vol 18, # 1, page 71

L.I. Grigorieva

Radiation load to workers of granite quarries from natural technogenically enhanced sources on the south of Ukraine


Objective: To determine internal irradiation effective dose of the workers of granite quarries on the south of Ukraine from 222Rn with daughter products considering two factors of its intake by the subjects from this category: with the air at the workplace and devillings, potable water used at the workplace and at home as well as external irradiation effective dose from technogenically enhanced natural sources (TENS).

Material and Methods: The findings of investigation of exposure dose rate, equilibrium equivalent concentration of 222Rn in the air of the workplace and working premises of main groups of workers of granite quarries on the south of Ukraine as well as potable water consumed by these workers were used as a material of the research. Effective exposure dose was determined using mathematical models of International Commission on Radiological Protection and dose coefficients recommended by UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

Results: Effective dose of irradiation of the persons working at granite quarries of the region via inhalation and oral (with potable water) intake of 222Rn at the workplace and at home as well as effective dose of external irradiation from TENS were determined.

Conclusion: The workers of granite quarries obtain double radiation load from 222Rn (at home and workplace). Total effective dose of internal exposure from 222Rn with the air of the working premises and dwelling and potable water was on an average 6.5 ± 0.2 mSvyear-1, maximum being about 15 mSvyear-1. The tendency to higher doses from 222Rn for definite groups of workers was revealed.

Key words: effective dose, 222Rn, workers of granite quarries.


2010, vol 18, # 1, page 83

N.E. Uzlenkova

Glycosaminoglycan fractions in the organs of rats at single external x-ray exposure


Objective: To investigate the character of the changes in connective tissue GAG factions in the organs of rats at single external x-ray exposure at minimal and medial lethal doses.

Material and Methods: The experiments were performed on 182 white male rats weighing 160-180 g. The animals were exposed to single total x-ray irradiation using PYM-17 unit in standard conditions. Absorbed by the soft tissues doses were 4.0 and 6.2 Gy. Total and sulfated GAGs were extracted from the tissues using Clostridium Histoliticum hydrolysis (600 U) and precipitation with 2% cetylpyridinium chloride. GAGs were fractionated with ion- exchange chromatography on Dowex 1 x 2 with quantitative analysis of individual GAGs by the concentration of D-glucuronic and L-iduronic acids. The investigation was done on day 5, 7, and 14 and month 1, 3, and 6 after the radiation exposure. Age control was used at each term of the investigation. Statistical analysis of the obtained findings was done using Biostatistics v.4.03 for Windows.

Results: It was established that the changes in GAGs and their fractions in the early post-radiation period and from day 3 to day 14 were characterized by increase of the level of total GAGs and hyaluronic acid fraction (hyaluronate) simultaneously in the lungs, on an average 1.5 and 1.9 times, and skin, on an average 1.4 and 1.8 times. In the long-term period, on month 3 and 6 after the exposure, regular changes of some fractions of sulfated GAGs depended on the tissue type. Tissue specificity of the changes in the fractions of individual sulfated GAGs in the long term period manifested in the lungs by increase of the level of chondroitin sulfates A and C 1.4 and 1.8 times on month 3 and 1.6 and 2.0 times on month 6 after the exposure and heparansulf ate level in 1.2, 1.3 and 1.5, 1.7 times. Respectively, in the skin increase of the level of chondroitin sulfate B (dermatan sulfate) 1.6, 1.8 times and 1.7, 2.1 times and heparan sulfate 1.3, 1.4 times and 1.6, 1.9 times was observed.

Conclusion: Single external x-ray exposure to minimal and median lethal doses causes stable increase of the total amount of GAGs and regular changes in their fraction composition in individual types of the connective tissue matrix of the lungs and the skin of the rats, which do not depend on the dose of irradiation but is tissue specific and depends on the time after the exposure.

Key words: external x-ray exposure, lungs, skin, connective tissue matrix, glycosaminoglycans.


2010, vol 18, # 1, page 89

O.V. Kuzmenko, N.A. Nikiforova, M.O. Ivanenko

The state of immune system circadian rhythms in rats at exposure to ionizing radiation


Objective: To investigate circadian rhythms of the immune system parameters restoration in rats with different response to stress, exposed to single total irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy at various time of the day.

Material and Methods: The experiment was performed on 80 white mongrel male rats. Two weeks before the irradiation the rats were exposed to 3-hour immobilization stress in a prone position. The rats were divided into hypo- and hyperreactive animals by lymphocyte to neutrophil ratio. The animals were exposed to a single total dose of 6 Gy at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. The immunological parameters were determined on day 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 after the exposure. To investigate immunological parameters (neutrophil phagocyte activity, CIC, IG G) circadian rhythms, the blood was taken with 6-hour intervals (at 6 a.m., 12 a.m., 6 p.m., 12 p.m. and 6 a.m. next day).

Results: It was shown that individual differences in the reaction to stress determined the degree of post-radiation disorders in the circadian immunity rhythms, beginning from day 3 after x-ray exposure. The changes in circadian rhythms of immunological parameters of the rats exposed at 8 p.a. significantly differed between hypo- and hyperreactive animals in all periods of observation. It was established that irrespective of the time of the exposure, both hypo- and hyperreactive animals did not demonstrate complete restoration of circadian rhythms of the investigated immunological parameters up to the end of the observation (day 30), besides the hyporeactive animals exposed at 8 p.m.

Conclusion: Minimal injuring effect of radiation on the circadian rhythms of the investigated immunity parameters were noted in hyporeactive animals exposed at 8 p.a. when compared with hyper- reactive as well as the rest of the animals exposed at 8 a.m. irrespective of the reaction to stress.

Key words: immobilization stress, ionizing radiation, individual reaction, immunity, circadian rhythms.

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