Home » Ukrainian Journal of Radiology » 2007, vol XV, # 1

2007, vol XV, # 1



2007, vol 15, # 1, page 40

R.J. Abdullaev, V.V. Gaphenko, U.V. Macak

Complex penis ultrasonography : medical aspects


Objective: To systematize ultrasound investigation of the penis, to study its normal echographic anatomy as well as Doppler parameters of erectile function.

Material and Methods: The parameters of two-dimensional echosonography and Doppler ultrasound study of 14 healthy men (without the signs of erectile dysfunction) aged 21-46 were selected for the analysis.

Results: On two-dimensional echogram, the structure of cavernous and spongy body was homogeneous, hypoechoic, small-grain. The membrane was seen on the periphery of the cavernous bodies as a thin hyperechoic structure. Cavernous arteries were seen as symmetrical anechoic tubular structures. Doppler ultrasound study revealed characteristic changes in the spectrum of different erection phases. In resting phase the cavernous arteries were not always demonstrated by color Doppler ultrasound. On pulsed Doppler ultrasound the blood flow in the cavernous arteries was characterized by low systolic rate, smoothed antegrade and inconsiderable retrograde component and high index of peripheral resistance. In latent phase blood inflow to the cavernous bodies was considerably higher than outflow. Swelling phase was characterized by increased peak systolic rate, three-phase blood flow, increased index of peripheral resistance. The cavernous arteries were well seen at complete erection. The blood flow in the dorsal vein was not determined. In rigid phase elasticity and volume of the penis were stable, arterial inflow stopped temporary. Visualization and registration of the blood flow in the cavernous arteries was difficult, sometimes was absent. Slight retrograde blood flow was sometimes seen in the dorsal vein. Detumescence phase was characterized by decreased volume of the penis, increased blood flow in the dorsal vein, decreased peak systolic rate and peripheral vascular resistance on Doppler spectrum.

Conclusion: Being an objective diagnostic technique ultrasonography can be successfully used to study anatomical functional characteristics of the penis and its erection.

Key words: ultrasonography, penis, erectile function Dopplerometry, methodology.

2007, vol 15, # 1, page 45

L.Y. Vasiliev, E.B. Radzishevskay, Y. B. Vikman, F.N. Gorleku

Improvement of monitoring system in patients with stage 1-2 breast cancer


Objective: To work out a program of obligatory examinations of the patients with breast cancer (BC) based on the model of appearance of distant metastases depending on the terms after the surgery.

Material and Methods: Case histories of 156 women with stage 1-2 BC residing in Kharkiv and Kharkiv region treated at Institute for Medical Radiology in 1993-1994 were analyzed.

Results: To find unclear regularities in the database WizWhy program was used. This allowed to suggest a hypothesis about the dependence of the presence/absence of distant metastases on body mass index (BMI) according to Ketle. The study demonstrated that in patients with BMI exceeding the norm distant metastases did not appear with probability P = 0.897. In the group without distant metastases BMI exceeded the norm (stage 1 obesity) in the largest group of the patients of patients (42.5%). In the group with distant metastases BMI was lower than the norm in the majority (52.77%) of patients. The use of Data Mining function revealed the association between distant metastases appearance and the involved side.

Positive prognosis probability was P=0.83 when the left side was involved and 0.69 when the right side was involved. Based on the investigation of instant risk function an algorithm of postoperative screening of the patients with stage 1-2 BC was recommended.

Conclusion: The performed mathematical simulation of medical information and the developed technique for stage 1-2 BC monitoring allow to schedule the number and terms of the followups which promotes timely recognition of metastases and reduction of radiation load in the patients.

Key words: breast cancer, mathematical processing, monitoring.

2007, vol 15, # 1, page 49

I.V. Bagdasarova, S.P. Fomina, V.U. Kundin

Hemodynamics and functional state of the kidneys in primary glomerulonephritis with nephrotic syndrome: influence of ACE inhibitors


Objective: To study the state of hemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in nephrotic syndrome (NS) of glomerulonephritis (GN) in children depending on the treatment protocol.

Material and Methods: Several angiography and GFR parameters were studied using renal scan with Tc-99m DTPA findings of 210 children with NS of primary GN.

Results: The analysis of the findings of indirect renoangioscintigraphy and dynamic renoscintigraphy with Tc-99m DTPA in children with nephrotic syndrome of primary glomerulonephritis at different stages of observation allowed to determine the peculiarities of hemodynamics and the changes of GFR depending on the disease outcome. It was established that the signs of progression before the treatment with glucocorticoids were prolonged arterial phase of renal flow >8 s, and deceleration of GFR < 80 ml/min/m 2 on week 6-10 of treatment. Administration of renoprotective drugs (ACE inhibitors) in addition to the generally accepted therapy improved the course of the disease, delayed the terms of chronic renal failure development.

Conclusion: The obtained findings allow to consider that the level of arterial blood flow and GFR before the treatment and on week 8-10 of the treatment with glucocorticoids and cytostatics are significant prognostic factors of an unfavorable course of the disease, which should be taken into account for timely treatment correction, i.e. early ACE inhibitors administration, the use of more aggressive protocols of therapy with glucocorticoids and cytostatics (increase of terms, increase of doses, pulsetherapy).

Key words: nephrotic syndrome, children, renal scan, indirect renangiography, ACE inhibitors, prognosis.

2007, vol 15, # 1, page 55

S.M. Pushkar, T.P. Yakimova, N.V. Bilozir

The use of Taxotere as apoptosis inductor in neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for advanced local breast cancer


Objective: To determine the efficacy of tolerant doses of Taxotere as an inductor of apoptosis at neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in the generally accepted regimen when treating stage 2B-3B local breast cancer (BC).

Material and Methods: Fifty-nine women aged 30-65 with stage 2B-3B BC underwent clinical morphological investigation. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (19 subjects) was administered Taxotere at tolerant doses in addition to neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in a generally accepted fractionation mode (TFD 60 Gy), group 2 (40 patients) was administered only radiation therapy in a generally accepted mode (TFD 60 Gy). Radiation pathomorphism and apoptosis index were studied on histological specimens of the resected tumors. The degree of total organism toxicity as well as local radiation reactions was determined using the WHO scale.

Results: Chemoradiation therapy with the use of Taxotere did not increase the degree of local radiation reactions, hematological and non-hematological signs of general intoxication when compared with neoadjuvant RT in the generally accepted mode. Mean indices of radiation regression of the tumor in patients of group 1 were 75-90% vs 40-50% in group 2. Total tumor regression was observed in 2 of 19 patients of group 1. High degree of the tumor response to the treatment was proven by significant increase of pathological mitoses and dystrophic changes in the tumor cells.

Conclusion: The developed method of administration of tolerant doses of Taxotere in addition to neoadjuvant RT in the generally accepted mode is an effective and promising method of multimodality treatment for local BC.

Key words: local breast cancer, neoadjuvant radiation therapy, apoptosis induction, Taxotere.


2007, vol 15, # 1, page 60

N.E. Uzlenkova, E.M. Mamotuk, V.A. Gusakova, O.K. Kononenko

Dynamics of experimental pneumofibrosis at x-ray exposure


Objective: To study the dynamics and character of experimental pneumofibrosis development in rats after single external x-ray exposure at a dose of 6.2 Gy.

Material and Methods: The experiments were performed on 78 white male rats weighing 160-180 g. Single total x-ray exposure of the animals was performed using РУМ -17 unit in standard technical conditions. The study was done 1, 3 and 6 months after the exposure. Age control was done at every stage of the experiment. Histological and ultrastructural investigatons of the lung tissue were done using standard unified techniques. The degree of pneumofibrosis was assessed using a specially developed scoring scale and the findings of morphometry of the area of fibrosis, alveolar and capillary surface. Dry mass of the lungs and the amount of total collagen were determined using biochemical techniques. Spirmen coefficient was calculated to analyze the correlation. The data were processes using Biostatistics 4.03 for Windows package.

Results: It was established that single total x-ray exposure at a dose of 6.2 Gy caused development of radiation induced interstitial pneumofibrosis in rats within the term of 3-6 months. Pneumofibrosis intensity depended on the time after the exposure and was determined by the degree of alveolar system disorders and the area of connectivetissue growth in the respiratory portions of the lungs. Pneumofibrosis development was characterized by significant increase of the dry mass of the lungs and increase of total collagen amount in them. Positive correlation between the amount of total collagen and morphometric parameters of pneumofibrosis area was revealed. Conclusion: During the observation 3 months after single external x-ray exposure at a dose of 6.2 Gy the degree of pneumofibrosis development in 71.4 % of cases reached stage 2, following 6 months it reached stage 3 in 14.3 % of cases.

Key words: external x-ray exposure, experimental pneumofibrosis

2007, vol 15, # 1, page 66

O.A. Romanova, T.A. Sidorenko, N.I. Igumnova

Secondary immune deficiency in rats exposed to low-dose x-ray during pre-implantation period of embryogenesis


Objective: To study the influence of radiation factor during early embryogenesis on the condition of immunity in the offsprings.

Material and Methods: Wistar rats were exposed irradiated at a dose of 0.5 Gy on the 3rd day of pregnancy. A group of intact pregnant females was formed simultaneously.

The condition of the immune system of posterity in the both (irradiated in early embryonal period and nonirradiated) groups of animals was estimated on the 7 th , 14 th and 30 th postnatal days using the following parameters: 1) T- and B-lymphocyte amount in the spleen; 2) the amount of autoreactive lymphocytes in the spleen; 3) amount of circulating immune complexes in the serum; 4) complement level; 5) phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes (phagocyte index and phagocyte number), 6) bactericide activity of blood leukocytes (HCT test).

Results: The investigations demonstrated deficiency of B-lymphocytes in the spleen on the 7 th and 30 th postnatal days and T-lymphocytes on the 14 th day; reduction of functional activity of blood phagocytes and complement activity on all investigation phases as well as dynamic growth in the number of spleen autorosette-forming lymphocytes and level of circulating immune complexes.

Conclusion: The obtained findings suggest the presence of acquired immune deficiency in animals exposed to low dose radiation during pre-implantation period of embryogenesis, acquired immune deficiency with damage of T-, B- and phagocytic links of immunity accompanied by autoreactive process.

Key words: secondary immune deficiency, irradiation, low doses, pre-implantation embryogenesis.


2007, vol 15, # 1, page 71

M.O. Klimenko, O.S. Varvaricheva

p53 expression in thymus and spleen lymphocytes of the rats exposed to low-dose gamma-radiation against a background of chronic inflammation


Objective: To study dosedependence of p53 expression in lymphocytes of thymus and spleen at low-dose y-irradiation.

Material and Methods: The study was performed on 102 male Wistar rats. Chronic inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan solution into a previously prepared subcutaneous air pouch. Irradiation was performed on the 3rd and 7 th days of inflammation at a dose of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 Gy and doserate 20 mGy/h. p53 expression was estimated using immunohistochemical assay in lymphocytes of the thymus and spleen.

Results: Chronic inflammation was accompanied by increased p53 expression in lymphocytes of thymus and spleen. Maximal expression was revealed on the 3 rd day of inflammation at the peak of macrophagelymphocyte reaction. p53 was more expressed in spleen lymphocytes than in thymus lymphocytes. Linear dosedependence of p53 expression was determined in all animal study groups with minor increase of p53 expression at a dose of 0.1 Gy.

Conclusion: The low value of p53 expression at dose 0.1 Gy Obtained in this study shows low level of oncogen suppression activity in respect of high proliferation of lymphocytes in thymus and spleen, which indicates high risk of implementation of oncogenic potential at chronic inflammation, including in lymphoid organs.

Key words: chronic inflammation, low-dose y-radiation, p53 expression, lymphocytes.

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